Abrasion
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Abrasion

Physical And Chemical Injuries

Oral Pathology And Medicine

ABRASION

Contributed By: Dr. Himani

DEFINITION:

Abrasion is pathological wearing away of tooth substance through some abnormal mechanical process.

Description: Image result for abrasion in dentistry


ETIOLOGY:

Abrasive denitrifies:

  • Most common cause of abrasion of root surface.
  • V shaped or wedge shaped ditch on the root side of cementoenamel junction in teeth with some gingival recession is usually seen.

Improper brushing habit:

Factors influencing the role of tooth brushing in abrasion are:-

  1. Brushing technique
  2. Brushing force
  3. Bristle stiffness
  4. Time
  5. Frequency

Others:

- Habits such as holding a pipe stem between teeth.

- Tobacco chewing.

- Vigorous use of tooth picks or dental floss between adjacent teeth.

- The habitual opening of bobby pins with teeth


CLINICAL FEATURES:

TOOTH BRUSH INJURY:-

  • SITE:- Usually occurs on exposed surface of roots of teeth
  • MECHANISM:- It occurs due to back and forth movement of brush with heavy pressure causing bristles to assume wedge shaped arrangement in between crown and root.
  • APPEARANCE:- V shaped or wedge shaped ditch on the root side of cementoenamel junction in teeth
  • SYMPTOMS:- Patient becomes sensitive as dentin becomes exposed.
  • SIGNS:-
  • The angle formed in the depth of lesion as well as that of enamel edge is sharp one .
  • Cervical lesions caused purely by abrasion have sharp well defined margins and a smooth, hard surface.
  • The lesion may become more rounded and shallow, if there is element of erosion present.

DENTINAL FEATURES:-

  • Exposed dentin appears highly polished.
  • Exposure of dentinal tubules and consequent irritation of odontoblastic processes stimulates secondary dentin formation which is sufficient to protect the pulp from clinical exposure.

 

DENTAL FLOSS OR TOOTH PICK INJURY:-

  • SITE:- cervical portion of proximal surfaces, just above the gingival margin, is affected.

RADIOGRAPHIC FEATURES:

TOOTH BRUSH INJURY:-

  • LOCATION:- Radiolucent defect at the cervical level of teeth.
  • SHAPE:- Well defined semilunar shape, with borders of increasing density.
  • PULP:- Pulp chamber may be partially or fully sclerosed in severely affected teeth.

 

DENTAL FLOSS OR TOOTH PICK INJURY:-

  • APPEARANCE:- Narrow semilunar groove in the interproximal surface of teeth near cervical area.


MANAGEMENT:

MODIFIED TEETH CLEANSING HABITS:-

Modification of teeth cleaning habits will be indicated.

REMOVAL OF CAUSE:-

Elimination of causative agent should be carried out.

RESTORATION:-

Class V restoration should be done for esthetics purpose and to prevent further tooth wear.


REFERENCES:

  1. STURDEVANT’S – Art and Science of Operative Dentistry, A South Asian Edition, pg no& 293 to 294
  2. TEXTBOOK OF ORAL MEDICINE- Anil Ghom, 3rd edition , pg no 113 to 115
  3. SHAFER’S TEXTBOOK OF ORAL PATHOLOGY- 7th edition, pg no 572 & 573
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