Inflammation, Signs, Vascular Events, Types
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Inflammation, Signs, Vascular Events, Types

Inflammation, Immunity & Hypersensitivity

Pathology

Inflammation, Signs, Vascular Events, Types

Definition:Inflammation is defined as a local response of living mammalian tissue to injury due to any agent. It is a body's defense reaction in order to eliminate or limit the spread of injurious agent as well as to remove consequent necrosed cells and tissues.


Cardinal Signs of Inflammation:

Five cardinal Signs of Inflammation are:

  1. Rubor or Redness
  2. Tumor or Swelling
  3. Calor or Heat
  4. Dolor or Pain
  5. Functio laesa or Loss of Function

Vascular Events of Inflammation:

Changes in microvasculator (Venules, Capillaries)

  1. Hemodynamic Changes
  2. Vascular Permeability Changes

Hemodynamic Changes: (The People Love Sakshi Maliks Expertise)

  1. Transient Vasoconstriction: Rapid vascular response of arterioles.
  2. Persistent Progressive Vasodilation: Vasodialation leads to increased blood flow to affected area which causes redness and warmth.
  3. Local Hydrostatic Pressure: Vasodilation leads to transudation of fluid in extra cellular space causing swelling.
  4. Stasis of Blood flow: Plasma escapes thereby making blood viscous and permeability of microvasculature increases.
  5. Margination of Leucocyte and Pavementing: Leucocytes of affected area come in Plasmic Zone called Margination. Leucocytes together stick to endothelium and form continuous layer called Pavementing.
  6. Emigration: After Pavementing neutrophills move and migrate through endothelial cells into extracellular space. This is called Emigration.

Vascular Permeability Changes: (Calcutta's Rosogulla Does Enrich Nourishment)

  1. Contraction of Endothelial Cells: Vascular leakiness is caused due to temporary gaps between the endothelial cells
  2. Retraction of Endothelial Cells: Reversible retraction seen due to reorganization of endothelial cells or cytoskeleton.
  3. Direct Injury to Endothelial Cells: Necrosis and appearance of physical gap at site of damaged endothelium due to injury
  4. Endothelial Injury Mediated by Leukocytes: Inflammation activates the leukocytes which adhere to endothelium and release proteolytic enzymes and toxic oxygen causing increased vascular permeability and endothelial injury.
  5. Neovascularisation: Capillaries are formed under the the influence of vascular endothelial growth.

Types:

Depending on the defense capacity of the host and duration of response, inflammation can be classified as acute and chronic.

Acute inflammation:

Short duration and represent early body reaction and is usually followed by repair.

Features:

  1. Accumulation of fluid and plasma at site
  2. Intravascular platelet activation
  3. PMN's as inflammatory cells

Examples: Acute Bronchitis, Acute appendicitis, Sore Throat.

 

Chronic Inflammation:

As name suggests, longer in duration and occurs either after acute or continuous stimulus converts it into chronic. Examples: TB, leprosy, Rheumatoid Artheritis.

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