Inflammation, Signs, Vascular Events, Types
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Inflammation, Signs, Vascular Events, Types

Inflammation, Immunity & Hypersensitivity


Inflammation, Signs, Vascular Events, Types

Definition:Inflammation is defined as a local response of living mammalian tissue to injury due to any agent. It is a body's defense reaction in order to eliminate or limit the spread of injurious agent as well as to remove consequent necrosed cells and tissues.

Cardinal Signs of Inflammation:

Five cardinal Signs of Inflammation are:

  1. Rubor or Redness
  2. Tumor or Swelling
  3. Calor or Heat
  4. Dolor or Pain
  5. Functio laesa or Loss of Function

Vascular Events of Inflammation:

Changes in microvasculator (Venules, Capillaries)

  1. Hemodynamic Changes
  2. Vascular Permeability Changes

Hemodynamic Changes: (The People Love Sakshi Maliks Expertise)

  1. Transient Vasoconstriction: Rapid vascular response of arterioles.
  2. Persistent Progressive Vasodilation: Vasodialation leads to increased blood flow to affected area which causes redness and warmth.
  3. Local Hydrostatic Pressure: Vasodilation leads to transudation of fluid in extra cellular space causing swelling.
  4. Stasis of Blood flow: Plasma escapes thereby making blood viscous and permeability of microvasculature increases.
  5. Margination of Leucocyte and Pavementing: Leucocytes of affected area come in Plasmic Zone called Margination. Leucocytes together stick to endothelium and form continuous layer called Pavementing.
  6. Emigration: After Pavementing neutrophills move and migrate through endothelial cells into extracellular space. This is called Emigration.

Vascular Permeability Changes: (Calcutta's Rosogulla Does Enrich Nourishment)

  1. Contraction of Endothelial Cells: Vascular leakiness is caused due to temporary gaps between the endothelial cells
  2. Retraction of Endothelial Cells: Reversible retraction seen due to reorganization of endothelial cells or cytoskeleton.
  3. Direct Injury to Endothelial Cells: Necrosis and appearance of physical gap at site of damaged endothelium due to injury
  4. Endothelial Injury Mediated by Leukocytes: Inflammation activates the leukocytes which adhere to endothelium and release proteolytic enzymes and toxic oxygen causing increased vascular permeability and endothelial injury.
  5. Neovascularisation: Capillaries are formed under the the influence of vascular endothelial growth.


Depending on the defense capacity of the host and duration of response, inflammation can be classified as acute and chronic.

Acute inflammation:

Short duration and represent early body reaction and is usually followed by repair.


  1. Accumulation of fluid and plasma at site
  2. Intravascular platelet activation
  3. PMN's as inflammatory cells

Examples: Acute Bronchitis, Acute appendicitis, Sore Throat.


Chronic Inflammation:

As name suggests, longer in duration and occurs either after acute or continuous stimulus converts it into chronic. Examples: TB, leprosy, Rheumatoid Artheritis.

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