Child Psychology
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Child Psychology

Child Psychology

Pedodontics

Child Psychology :

Contributed By : Dr. Amit Borse

Theories classified in 2:

1 . Psychodynamic Theories :

  1. Classical psychoanalytical : Sigmund Freud 1905
  2. Psychosocial : Erik Erikson 1963
  3. Theory of cognitive development : Jean Piaget 1952

2 . Behaviour learning theories :

  1. Classical conditioning : Ivan Pavlov 1927
  2. Operant conditioning : Skinner 1938
  3. Hierarchy of needs : Abraham Maslow 1952
  4. Social learning : Albert Bandura 1963

       

      MIND IS AN ICEBERG WITH 1 / 7TH OF IT’S BULK FLOATING ABOVE WATER

      Sigmund Freud : components of personality

      1. ID:

      Inherited reservoir of unorganised drives.

      Represent unconscious , instinctive urges.

      Pleasure Principle :

      Increased tension-(ID)--- releases tension –(results in)----comfortably constant & low energy level of a person .


      2. EGO:

      Makes necessary interaction with social world possible & permits needs of ID to be gratified .

      Distinguishes between things in mind &things in external world .

      EGO obeys REALITY PRINCIPLE.

      PRINCIPLE OF REALITY prevents discharge of tension until the object of satisfaction is achieved .

      Has perception of internal &external world


      3. SUPEREGO:

      Makes value judgement about individual urges ,impulses & activities .

      Superego is defined as the latest development of mind embodying the code of society & including concepts of right &wrong , the value system & the ideals.



      FREUD BELIEVED THAT OUR MOST BASIC DRIVE IS SEX DRIVE AND STATED 5 STAGES IN CHILD & ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT ;

      1. Oral stage: birth- 18 months

      Characterised by infants concern for his mouth and gratification .

      Sucking , biting, swallowing , manipulating various parts of mouth .

      ID controls child’s personality in this phase and demands immediate gratification of desires.

      Neglected (insufficiently fed) or over-protected(over fed) might become AN ORALLY FIXATED MAN OR WOMAN.

      Oral stage fixation results in garrulousness, smoking, continuous eating, chewing & alcoholism . Psychologically sarcastic , nail biting, oral sadistic personality .


      2. Anal stage: 18 months -3 years

      Bowel movements become source of pleasure .

      Maturation of neuromuscular control---sphincter muscles mature---ability of infant to withhold/ expel faecal material.

      Abnormality in this stage results in anally expulsive or retentive character as an adult.


      3. Phallic stage: 3 – 7 years

      Central interest shifts to genital region.

      Sexual gratification becomes more erotic during this time .

      Boys:    Finds father a rival for mother’s love.

      Tries to become more like a man—OEDIPAL COMPLEX.

      Makes difference out that he has penis and girls don’t .

      May develop ‘CASTRATION ANXIETY’– fear of losing one’s penis.

      Girls :  Sees mother as her main rival and develops affection towards her father.

      Recognises anatomic differences between boys and girls ; therefore she suffers from   ‘PENIS ENVY.’ This is called as ‘ELECTRA COMPLEX ‘.


      4. Latent stage : 7- 11 years

      Lasts from 7 years to puberty.

      Relatively dormant stage.

      Children shift interest from marrying their parent toward learning to become a grown up .

      Children shift interest from parents to peers (companion ).

      True sexual interest occurs between peers .


      Genital stage : 11- 18 years

      Longest of 5 stages .

      Makes contact and forms relationship with members of opposite sex.

      Child has a matured personality from dependence on parents and acceptance of adult role function and social value .

      He realizes his goals for reproduction and survival .


       

      Age: Birth- 18 months

      Stage: Oral

      Characteristic: pleasure from eating and sucking


      Age: 1-3 years

      Stage: Anal

      Characteristic: pleasure from retention and repulsion of faeces


      Age: 3-5 years

      Stage: Phallic

      Characteristic: Pleasure from touching genitals

      Male- OEDIPAL COMPLEX

      Female – ELECTRA COMPLEX


      Age: 6- 11 years

      Stage: Latency

      Characteristic: Identification with same sex parent


      Age: 12- 18 years

      Stage: Genital

      Characteristic: Heterosexual attraction with social roles, values independence as a mature adult from parents



      Reference : Text book of Paediatric Dentistry – S. G .Damle 4th edition

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