Child Psychology :
Contributed By : Dr. Amit Borse
Theories classified in 2:
1 . Psychodynamic Theories :
- Classical psychoanalytical : Sigmund Freud 1905
- Psychosocial : Erik Erikson 1963
- Theory of cognitive development : Jean Piaget 1952
2 . Behaviour learning theories :
- Classical conditioning : Ivan Pavlov 1927
- Operant conditioning : Skinner 1938
- Hierarchy of needs : Abraham Maslow 1952
- Social learning : Albert Bandura 1963
MIND IS AN ICEBERG WITH 1 / 7TH OF IT’S BULK FLOATING ABOVE WATER
Sigmund Freud : components of personality
Inherited reservoir of unorganised drives.
Represent unconscious , instinctive urges.
Pleasure Principle :
Increased tension-(ID)--- releases tension –(results in)----comfortably constant & low energy level of a person .
Makes necessary interaction with social world possible & permits needs of ID to be gratified .
Distinguishes between things in mind &things in external world .
EGO obeys REALITY PRINCIPLE.
PRINCIPLE OF REALITY prevents discharge of tension until the object of satisfaction is achieved .
Has perception of internal &external world
Makes value judgement about individual urges ,impulses & activities .
Superego is defined as the latest development of mind embodying the code of society & including concepts of right &wrong , the value system & the ideals.
FREUD BELIEVED THAT OUR MOST BASIC DRIVE IS SEX DRIVE AND STATED 5 STAGES IN CHILD & ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT ;
1. Oral stage: birth- 18 months
Characterised by infants concern for his mouth and gratification .
Sucking , biting, swallowing , manipulating various parts of mouth .
ID controls child’s personality in this phase and demands immediate gratification of desires.
Neglected (insufficiently fed) or over-protected(over fed) might become AN ORALLY FIXATED MAN OR WOMAN.
Oral stage fixation results in garrulousness, smoking, continuous eating, chewing & alcoholism . Psychologically sarcastic , nail biting, oral sadistic personality .
2. Anal stage: 18 months -3 years
Bowel movements become source of pleasure .
Maturation of neuromuscular control---sphincter muscles mature---ability of infant to withhold/ expel faecal material.
Abnormality in this stage results in anally expulsive or retentive character as an adult.
3. Phallic stage: 3 – 7 years
Central interest shifts to genital region.
Sexual gratification becomes more erotic during this time .
Boys: Finds father a rival for mother’s love.
Tries to become more like a man—OEDIPAL COMPLEX.
Makes difference out that he has penis and girls don’t .
May develop ‘CASTRATION ANXIETY’– fear of losing one’s penis.
Girls : Sees mother as her main rival and develops affection towards her father.
Recognises anatomic differences between boys and girls ; therefore she suffers from ‘PENIS ENVY.’ This is called as ‘ELECTRA COMPLEX ‘.
4. Latent stage : 7- 11 years
Lasts from 7 years to puberty.
Relatively dormant stage.
Children shift interest from marrying their parent toward learning to become a grown up .
Children shift interest from parents to peers (companion ).
True sexual interest occurs between peers .
Genital stage : 11- 18 years
Longest of 5 stages .
Makes contact and forms relationship with members of opposite sex.
Child has a matured personality from dependence on parents and acceptance of adult role function and social value .
He realizes his goals for reproduction and survival .
Age: Birth- 18 months
Characteristic: pleasure from eating and sucking
Age: 1-3 years
Characteristic: pleasure from retention and repulsion of faeces
Age: 3-5 years
Characteristic: Pleasure from touching genitals
Male- OEDIPAL COMPLEX
Female – ELECTRA COMPLEX
Age: 6- 11 years
Characteristic: Identification with same sex parent
Age: 12- 18 years
Characteristic: Heterosexual attraction with social roles, values independence as a mature adult from parents
Reference : Text book of Paediatric Dentistry – S. G .Damle 4th edition