BRIEF REVIEW OF ANAEMIA
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BRIEF REVIEW OF ANAEMIA

Hematology And Endocrinology

General Medicine

BRIEF REVIEW OF ANAEMIA

Contributed By: Dr. Mayur P. Kankar

ANAEMIA is state in which the blood haemoglobin level is below the normal range for the patient's age, sex and altitude of residence.

Normal Adult HAEMOGLOBIN level is:   

  • For MALES: 13-16g/dL
  • For FEMALES: 11.5-15.0g/dL

CLASSIFICATION:

  1. Based on cause:

    • Blood loss
      1. Acute
      2. Chronic
    • Inadequate production of normal red cells.
    • Excessive destruction of red cells.
  2. Based on morphology of red cells:

    • Normocytic
    • Microcytic
    • Macrocytic

Signs:

  • Pallor of skin, palms, oral mucous membrane, nail bed and palpebral conjuctivae.
  • Tachycardia
  • Oedema etc.

Symptoms:

  • Fatigue, lassitude, dyspnoea, palpitation.
  • Dizziness, syncope, tinnitus, vertigo.
  • Sleep disturbance, lack of concentration.
  • Anorexia, Angina, transient cerebral ischemia.
  • Amnorrhoea, polymnorrhoea, symptoms of cardiac failure etc

Anaemia

Specific aetiology

Haemolytic anaemia

Jaundice

Iron defficiency anaemia

Angular chelitis, Glossitis

Chronic haemolytic anaemia

Splenomegaly, Frontal bossing

General management:

  • Blood transfusion. (Packed cells are preferred)
  • Avoid circulatory overload in elderly patients and 20mg Furesemide may be given prior to transfusion.
  • Prompt treatment of infections and cardiac failure.

Ref. K.George Mathew & P.Agrawal (Diseases of blood)

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