Hemorrhagic shock
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Hemorrhagic shock

Hematology

Physiology

Hemorrhagic shock

Excessive loss of blood due to rupture of blood vessels due to which shock is produced.

Types:

Accidental


Capillary

Rupture of blood vessels, common in brain and heart


Internal

Rupture of blood vessels in the viscera


Postpartum

Immediately after child birth


Premature detachment of placenta



Reaction of body to Hemorrhagic Shock

Immediate Compensatory Effects:

- Reduced blood volume decreases venous return, ventricular filling and cardiac output. In severe conditions, fall in blood pressure is also seen. For maintaining blood pressure, carotid and aortic baroreceptors stop discharging impulses which leads to vasoconstriction and take blood pressure to normal level.

- Heart rate is increased to maintain cardiac output.

- Respiration increases both in depth and rate

- Skin becomes cold and there is low evaporation of sweat leading to cold sweat

- Impaired renal circulation leads to low urine flow.

Delayed Compensatory Effects:

- Due to increase in plasma, hemodilution occurs. Concentration of plasma proteins and hemoglobin is ↓

- Liver proteins come into action a few hours after hemorrhage. Plasma proteins helps to retain the fluid transported from tissue to blood.

- Hypoxia after hemorrhage stimulates erythopoetin secretion from the kidney, which in turn stimulates erythropoieses. Hemoglobin level also comes to normal level with maintained RBC count.


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